Cabarets or taverns for the working class numbered , or one for every three houses. At that time the city counted 63 drinking and singing clubs, 37 clubs for card players, 23 for bowling, 13 for skittles, and 18 for archery.
The churches likewise have their social organizations. Each club had a long roster of officers, and a busy schedule of banquets festivals and competitions. In , Lille annexed the adjacent towns of Fives, Wazemmes, and Moulins. Lille's population was , in , growing to over , by In Lille became the first city in France to be led by a socialist, Gustave Delory.
By , Lille's population stood at , The city profited from the Industrial Revolution , particularly via coal and the steam engine. The entire region grew wealthy thanks to its mines and textile industry. Lille's occupation by the Germans began on 13 October after a ten-day siege and heavy shelling which destroyed apartment and office blocks and 1, houses, mostly around the railway station and in the town centre.
By the end of October the town was being run by German authorities. As a result, occupied Lille became a place both for the hospitalisation and treatment of wounded soldiers as well as a place for soldiers' relaxation and entertainment. Many buildings, homes, and businesses were requisitioned to those ends. Lille was liberated by the Allies on 17 October , when General Sir William Birdwood and his troops were welcomed by joyous crowds. The general was made an honorary citizen of the city of Lille on 28 October of that year.
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The only audio recording known to have been made during the First World War was recorded near Lille in October The two minute recording captured the Royal Garrison Artillery conducting a gas shell bombardment. Cordonnier , was dedicated in From Lille felt the repercussions of the Great Depression , and by a third of the city's population lived in poverty. In , the city's mayor, Roger Salengro , became Minister of the Interior of the Popular Front , eventually killing himself after right-wing groups led a slanderous campaign against him.
During the Battle of France , Lille was besieged by German forces for several days. When Belgium was invaded, the citizens of Lille, still haunted by the events of the First World War, began to flee the city in large numbers. Lille was part of the zone under control of the German commander in Brussels, and was never controlled by the Vichy government in France. Lille was instead controlled under the military administration in Northern France. On 3 September, German troops began to leave Lille, fearing the British, who were on their way from Brussels.
The city was liberated by a British force consisting largely of tanks.
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Throughout the s and 70s, the region was faced with some problems after the decline of the coal, mining and textile industries. From the start of the s, the city began to turn itself more towards the service sector. In , the VAL , the world's first automated rapid transit underground network, was opened. This, with the opening of the Channel Tunnel in and the arrival of the Eurostar train, put Lille at the centre of a triangle connecting Paris, London and Brussels.
Work on Euralille, an urban remodelling project, began in The Euralille Centre was opened in , and the remodeled district is now full of parks and modern buildings containing offices, shops and apartments. In the "Grand Palais" was also opened for the general public, which is free for the public to enter on the first Sunday of every month.
Lille and Roubaix were impacted by the Riots which affected all of France's urban centres. Lille can be described as having a temperate oceanic climate ; summers normally do not reach high average temperatures, but winters can fall below freezing temperatures, but with averages quite a bit above the freezing mark.
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Precipitation is plentiful year round. The table below gives average temperatures and precipitation levels for the reference period. A former major mechanical , food industry and textile manufacturing centre as well as a retail and finance center, Lille forms the heart of a larger conurbation, regrouping Lille, Roubaix, Tourcoing and Villeneuve d'Ascq , which is France's 4th-largest urban conglomeration with a population of over 1. For centuries, Lille, a city of merchants, has displayed a wide range of incomes: We die under your stone ceilings! Employment in Lille has switched over half a century from a predominant industry to tertiary activities and services.
Lille features an array of architectural styles with various amounts of Flemish influence, including the use of brown and red brick. In addition, many residential neighborhoods, especially in Greater Lille, consist of attached 2—3 story houses aligned in a row, with narrow gardens in the back. These architectural attributes, many uncommon in France, help make Lille a transition in France to neighboring Belgium, as well as nearby Netherlands and England, where the presence of brick, as well as row houses or the terraced house is much more prominent.
Lille hosts an annual braderie on the first weekend in September. It is one of the largest gatherings of France and the largest flea market in Europe. Many of the roads in the inner city including much of the old town are closed and local shops, residents and traders set up stalls in the street. La Voix du Nord newspaper offices. It comprises buses, trams and a driverless metro system, all of which are operated under the Transpole name.
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The metro system has two lines, with a total length of 45 kilometres 28 miles and 60 stations. Lille is an important crossroads in the European high-speed rail network. It lies on the Eurostar line to London 1: But they all have their disadvantages and they take of it. What fun is it to wait around for someone to talk to you in a bar or when you're out and about?
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